Trademark dilution is one of three key likelihood of confusion factors that must be evaluated when conducting a trademark search and then re-evaluated if a registration refusal arises. Trademark dilution directly impacts the evaluation of the other likelihood of confusion factors. The weaker the senior user’s mark, the closer the junior user’s mark can come without causing a likelihood of confusion and thereby invading what amounts to its comparatively narrower range of protection.
I H W Management Limited d/b/a The Finchley Group applied to register the mark BLUE INDUSTRY for a variety of clothing items. The Trademark Office examined this application and approved it for publication. Pure & Simple Concepts, Inc. timely opposed the registration of the BLUE INDUSTRY mark.
To establish the strength (i.e., the broad scope of rights) in the INDUSTRY term, Pure & Simple argued it was the owner of a family of INDUSTRY marks for clothing. Generally, the common element in a family of marks is afforded a broad scope of protection, but establishing a family of marks is not easy.
The threshold issue is that the family feature must exist prior to the junior user’s use of its mark. The family feature also must be distinctive (excluding a highly suggestive term). Finally, the trademarks containing the family feature must be promoted together as a family. A mere intention to create a family of marks nor owning several registrations containing the alleged family feature is sufficient by itself to establish a family of marks.
Pure & Simple relied on eight registrations that contained the term INDUSTRY. Pure & Simple also included its licensee’s website, but this website does not promote the INDUSTRY term as a family feature. It simply identifies the brands this company distributes. Therefore, the evidence offered by Pure & Simple did not establish INDUSTRY as a family element.
Additionally, The Finchley Group offered 74 third-party registrations (far in excess of the 10 third-party registration minimum) that included the term INDUSTRY for clothing. This evidence not only further supported that finding that Pure & Simple did not own a family of INDUSTRY marks, but it also demonstrated that the INDUSTRY term was diluted for clothing. “The purpose of a defendant introducing third-party uses is to show that customers have become so conditioned by a plethora of such similar marks that customers have been educated to distinguish between different such marks on the bases of minute distinctions.” As such, The Finchley Group’s addition of the word BLUE was sufficient to distinguish its mark from Pure & Simple’s INDUSTRY marks.
The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board dismissed Pure & Simple’s opposition finding there was no likelihood of confusion. On December 4, 2019, Pure & Simple filed a Notice of Appeal the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. This is a curious decision by Pure & Simple because the record on appeal to the Federal Circuit cannot be supplemented whereas an appeal to the United States District Court is reviewed de novo. Seems like in this case it would have been preferable to go the District Court route given all the dilution evidence that was offered.